Astringents and toners help remove oily residue while refining and tightening the pores after they have been opened during the cleansing process. In general, they have a drying effect on the skin; the more alcohol or vinegar used to make an astringent or toner, the more astringent and drying it will be. Water-based formulas that include glycerin, aloe or other hydrating substances are less astringent and more moisturizing. Astringents and toners can sometimes be used instead of a cleanser. Those with oily
or acne-prone skin may benefit from the use of these products to reduce
oiliness. However, keep in mind that overuse can dry out the skin and cause it to produce even more oil. The best way to know how often to use a product is to watch how your skin responds, then tailor the applications accordingly. Start out by applying the following formulas once in the morning and once at night. You can also refer to the first chapter and use the formulas specified for oily and acne-prone skin, such as the Antimicrobial Astringent or the Chamomile Blend Astringent.