Mixtures of Air Pollutants
Because air is a mixture of gases, and because primary and secondary pollutants are produced continuously in large cities, it is difficult to distinguish the effects of individual pollutants outside of laboratories. Also, various pollutants may interact to pose a greater threat to health and exercise performance than that found with each single pollutant. To date, interactions of pollutants have been categorized as either additive, synergistic, or antagonistic. No antagonistic pollutant interactions have been observed. In reevaluating the definitions of these categories, it seems appropriate to revise them slightly. Here, an additive interaction is one in which the total physiologic effect is the sum of the effects of two or more individual pollutants. A synergistic interaction involves a total physiologic effect that is greater than the sum of the individual pollutant effects. A benign interaction is one in which no physiologic effects occur beyond those induced by one pollutant; this includes gas mixtures in which all components have no effect.
Can Exercise Cause Miscarriage In Early Pregnancy Photo Gallery
Medical Concerns Bronchial Asthma and Nasal Allergies
In addition to the previously mentioned complications, air pollution can exacerbate previously existing respiratory conditions. Among the most common are bronchial asthma and nasal allergies.
Bronchial asthma is an illness that involves hypersensitive airways and an inflammatory reaction that narrows the respiratory tree. Its characteristic symptoms include shortness of breath, wheezing, and coughing. The increased resistance to airflow during asthma results from contraction of the smooth muscle surrounding the bronchial tubes, mucus secretion, and fluid seepage. Fine particulates dust, cigarette smoke, pollen may stimulate an asthma attack. In some individuals, exercise stimulates bronchoconstriction exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, exercise-induced asthma.
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