Insulation requirements during exercise at different effective air temperatures (a) and the effects of different wind speeds on the effective air temperatures at different ambient air temperatures (AAT) (b).
Exposed flesh Extreme Bitter Very Cold freezes cold cold cold for the predicted rate of energy expenditure in the expected environmental conditions and keeping the clothing dry, especially if a strong wind is blowing.
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To calculate the coldness of the environment in which you exercise, you must know both the dry bulb temperature and the expected wind speed and direction. Wind dramatically increases the “coldness” of any given dry bulb temperature, in effect reducing the effective temperature to which the body is exposed, thereby increasing the rate of energy loss from the body. This is known as the wind chill factor. Exercises 4.2b is a plot of the effective temperature for different actual still-air dry bulb temperatures and wind speeds. To calculate the effective temperature, remember that your running speed into the wind increases the effective wind speed by a speed equal to your running speed, whereas running with the wind behind you reduces the effective wind speed by an equivalent amount. Notice also that it is not safe to run at effective temperatures below about -56 °C. At lower temperatures, exposed flesh freezes within 30 seconds, leading to “frostnip” or frostbite (see post 18).
Exercises 4.2 can help you decide how much clothing to wear depending on the speed at which you will be running and the effective air temperature. Note that even when you are running at quite slow speeds (10 km/hr) in effective air temperatures as low as -50 °C, as little as 3 CLO units will provide adequate protection. Appropriate clothing under these most extreme conditions would include the following: cotton T-shirt; two nylon sweat shirts; underpants (one or two pairs); cotton, polypropylene, or Lycra long johns; shorts; sweat pants; hood; mittens; ski mask or face protector including a sweatband to protect the tip of the nose; shoes; and socks. If there is precipitation, you must also wear a rainproof jacket with hood. At higher temperatures, you can discard the outer layers of clothing as you warm up.
You should try to wear sufficient clothing to keep warm but not so much that you start to sweat profusely, because sweat reduces the insulating properties of your clothing. Always start your run facing into the wind and finish with the wind behind you. In this way the cooling effect of the environment is greatest when you are freshest, running the fastest, and therefore generating the most body heat; cooling is least when you are tired, running the slowest, and producing the least heat. Always plan to run in well-populated areas so that help is always close at hand should hypothermia develop; never run so far that you might become tired and have to walk. As shown in Exercises 4.2, compared to running, walking dramatically increases the amount of clothing you need to wear to keep warm at low effective air temperatures. Finally, wear clothing that is easily adapExercises, like a lightweight rain jacket with a zip-up front and a hood, which can be worn either zipped or unzipped or with or without the hood or that can be carried with equal ease. Also choose running routes that provide as much shelter from the wind as possible.
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