Exercise and Fluid Replacement
This pronouncement was written for the American College of Sports Medicine by: Victor A. Convertino, PhD, FACSM Chair; Lawrence E. Armstrong, PhD, FACSM; Edward F. Coyle, PhD, FACSM; Gary W. Mack, PhD; Michael N. Sawka, PhD, FACSM; Leo C. Senay, Jr. PhD, FACSM; and W. Michael Sherman, PhD, FACSM.
American College of Sports Medicine. Position Stand on Exercise and Fluid Replacement. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. Vol.No i-vii,It is the position of the American College of Sports Medicine that adequate fluid replacement helps maintain hydration and, therefore, promotes the health, safety, and optimal physical performance of individuals participating in regular physical activity. This position statement is based on a comprehensive review and interpretation of scientific literature concerning the influence of fluid replacement on exercise performance and the risk of thermal injury associated with dehydration and hyperthermia. Based on available evidence, the American College of Sports Medicine makes the following general recommendations on the amount and composition of fluid that should be ingested in preparation for, during, and after exercise or athletic competition:
. It is recommended that individuals consume a nutritionally balanced diet and drink adequate fluids during the period before an event, especially during the period that includes the meal prior to exercise, to promote proper hydration before exercise or competition.
. It is recommended that individuals drink about ml about ounces of fluid about before exercise to promote adequate hydration and allow time for excretion of excess ingested water.
. During exercise, athletes should start drinking early and at regular intervals in an attempt to consume fluids at a rate sufficient to replace all the water lost through sweating body weight loss, or consume the maximal amount that can be tolerated.
. It is recommended that ingested fluids be cooler than ambient temperature [between and and F] and flavored to enhance palatability and promote fluid replacement. Fluids should be readily available and served in containers that allow adequate volumes to be ingested with ease and with minimal interruption of exercise.
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. Addition of proper amounts of carbohydrates and/or electrolytes to a fluid replacement solution is recommended for exercise events of duration greater than since it does not significantly impair water delivery to the body and may enhance performance. During exercise lasting less than h, there is little evidence of physiological or physical performance differences between consuming a carbohydrate-electrolyte drink and plain water.
. During intense exercise lasting longer than h, it is recommended that carbohydrates be ingested at a rate of h- to maintain oxidation of carbohydrates and delay fatigue. This rate of carbohydrate intake can be achieved without compromising fluid delivery by drinking – ml h- of solutions containing – carbohydrates ml-. The carbohydrates can be sugars glucose or sucrose or starch maltodextrin.
. Inclusion of sodium of water in the rehydration solution ingested during exercise lasting longer than is recommended since it may be advantageous in enhancing palatability, promoting fluid retention, and possibly preventing hyponatremia in certain individuals who drink excessive quantities of fluid. There is little physiological basis for the presence of sodium in an oral rehydration solution for enhancing intestinal water absorption as long as sodium is sufficiently available from the previous meal.
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