Minimize your exposure to pollutants while en route to an event. Consider closing windows and limiting the air intake of your vehicle.
Minimize the warm- up period, to limit your exposure to polluted air.
The swirling winds of a tornado create positively charged ions. Merrilee Thomas/Tom Stack & Associates weather forecasting. Biometeorology deals with the effects of environmental factors on living organisms. Climate is the average condition of the weather at a specific site, over a period of years. Medical climatology is concerned with the influences of natural climates on health. It deals with medical conditions that are either caused or aggravated by climatic elements. Many of these medical conditions were described in chapters -, and include heat exhaustion, heatstroke, frostbite, hypothermia, barotrauma, decompression sickness, acute mountain sickness, headaches, and climatic aggravation of asthma and bronchitis. Therefore, biometeorology is concerned with physiological responses, and medical climatology focuses on the interface of physiology and illness.
Weather systems and the climates of particular geographic regions consist of many geophysical factors, including temperature, wind velocity, humidity, barometric pressure, precipitation, positive or negative air ion density, and radiation solar, infrared, ultraviolet. For centuries, scientists have theorized that weather, and especially changes in meteorological systems, affect human behavior, health, and performance. One of the most significant of the early systematic studies was conducted by the French sociologist Emile Durkheim, who evaluated the influence of temperature and climate on suicide. He concluded that suicide death rates were not influenced by climate. However, this does not rule out the effects of atmospheric conditions on behavior. In order to resolve this issue, it is necessary to consider all of the elements that make up the physical environment and assess how they can j ointly or independently influence behavior.
Understanding Air Ions
Centuries of folk lore and anecdotal reports suggest that some people suffer discomfort and pain from the slightest change of weather, while others respond only to severe changes in weather. A thorough review of the research regarding the effects of short-term weather systems and climate on humans reveals that only a few well-designed studies have been published. For example, Muecher and Ungeheuer investigated reaction time, visual perception, job accident proneness, and visits to a medical dispensary during six different weather conditions. They concluded that these four variables were affected by changes in the weather, especially by a dry warm wind that visits the Alpine regions of Europe in early spring and fall; this wind has been named Foehn, or Witches’ Wind, because of the deleterious effects it has on humans. There are numerous other winds of this type around the world, including the Santa Ana in California, the Chinook in western Canada and United States, the Sirocco in Italy, the Sharav, or Hamsin, of the Middle East, the Mistral in France, the Thar in India, and the Zonda in Argentina.
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These hot, dry, ground-level winds carry huge quantities of dust and generate enormous fields of static electricity and ions. Ions are formed when atoms gain or lose electrons negatively charged particles, creating an imbalance in the number of charged particles in each. The positive ion concentrations in these storms may increase toper cubic centimeter cc. Over open land, there are normally to total ions in every cc of air cubic in. cc, and the ratio of to – ions ranges from : to .:. Several other natural phenomena generate negative and positive ions figure on a smaller scale.
Figurepresents a striking example of the influence of a moving weather front on positive and negative air ions. These measurements were taken just as an afternoon rainstorm passed through Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. You will note that air ion concentrations rose rapidly during the min prior to the storm, then fell continuously until the storm ended.
Total ion levels before, during, and after a rainstorm. This demonstrates the effect that a passing weather front has on both positive and negative ions.
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