At higher facing wind speeds, the oxygen cost of running increases enormously. Wind speeds of 35 km/hr would reduce running speeds by about 2.5 km/hr, speeds of 60 km/hr by about 8 km/hr (see Exercises 2.5).
The additional oxygen costs of running up differing gradients or into facing wind speeds of different velocities.
The practical value of this information is twofold. First, it indicates that time lost going up a hill can never be fully regained by running an identical downhill gradient. Second, the data in Exercises 2.5 can be used to estimate how much time you can expect to lose or gain on a particular section of a race (if you know the gradient of that section).
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More recently, Chester Kyle and his colleagues (Kyle, 1986; Kyle & Caiozzo, 1986) studied the aerodynamic drag effects of athletic clothing and showed that the following factors increased the aerodynamic drag experienced by the runner (Kyle & Caiozzo, 1986): shoes with exposed laces (0.5 %); hair on limbs (0.6%); long socks (0.9%); short hair (4%); loosely fitting clothing (4.2%), and long hair (6.3%). They also calculated that by reducing aerodynamic drag by as little as 2%, equivalent to a haircut, a runner would reduce his or her running time over 100 m by 0.01 seconds and in a standard-marathon by 5.7 seconds. Even better results could be achieved by running in a custom-fitted speed suit with a tight-fitting hood to cover the hair and ears. Such a suit made of polyurethane-coated, stretchable nylon reduces aerodynamic drag by smoothing the airflow around the streamlined areas of the chin, ears, and hair, and by eliminating the flapping of loose clothing. Calculations suggest that wearing such clothing would reduce running time in the 100-m race by 0.284 seconds (3%) and by 1:34.50 (1%) in a standard marathon (L. Brownlie et al, 1987b). Unfortunately, this clothing is impractical for marathon runners because its streamlining prevents heat loss (L. Brownlie et al, 1987a). The first attempt to use the streamlined hood in Olympic relay competition also had a disastrous resultthe 1988 United States Olympic Games 100-m relay team was disqualified when one runner received the baton outside the legal zone because he was unable to hear the approach of the other runner!